The scale and nature of migration and displacement calls for cross-border solutions. The Khartoum Process is a regional dialogue on migration between the European Union and countries of origin, transit and destination in the wider Horn of Africa region, with an initial focus on addressing trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. Most countries within the Khartoum Process region are places of origin, transit and destination for migrants and displaced people.

The Better Migration Management (BMM) programme is a regional, multi-year, multi-partner programme co-funded by the European Union Emergency Trust Fund for Africa and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), and coordinated by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is one of the main implementing partners along with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes (UNODC), CIVIPOL and the British Council. Expertise France and the Italian Department of Public Security were also implementing partners in phase I (2016-2019). It was designed and is being implemented in close collaboration with the African Union Commission and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD).

The overall objective of the programme is to enable national authorities and institutions to facilitate safe, orderly and regular migration, and effectively address and reduce trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants within and from the Horn of Africa region by applying a human rights-based approach.

The programme is financed by the European Union Emergency Trust Fund for Africa (Horn of Africa Window) with EUR 70 million and by the BMZ with EUR 11 million. IOM implements the BMM programme in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda.


  • BMM is built upon a comprehensive and holistic approach towards migration management and an understanding of the potentially positive contribution of orderly migration and its impact on regional development and stability.
  • The design and implementation of all actions follows a context and conflict-sensitive approach.
  • Implementation is in full observance of all international laws and conventions. All activities follow a rights-based approach to prevent the criminalisation of irregular migrants and are conducted in full respect for the rights of migrants and the specific needs of vulnerable groups such as children, women, the elderly, victims of trafficking and smuggled migrants. This is achieved by mainstreaming human rights considerations and gender issues into all programme activities.
  • The success of the BMM programme depends on strong partnership and full ownership of the participating countries as well with established supranational actors and structures.
  • BMM follows a regional approach to foster greater coordination among participating countries and between relevant regional organisations or consultative mechanisms.
  • BMM is a comprehensive response through which the EU supports countries of the Khartoum Process in migration management. The programme strives towards complementarity with other support programmes and with various political dialogues, while promoting regional initiatives towards greater policy coherence and for enhanced legal channels for migration.

Key stakeholders for this programme include government ministries, judicial sector, police, border management, individuals affected by trafficking and smuggling, communities, civil society, media, and the general public.

Under the BMM programme, IOM is contributing to the following results:

  • Migration governance: Effective and coherent coordination between government institutions responsible for migration management at local, national, and regional levels is reinforced. The development of national policies and strategies on safe and regular migration is supported, and national legislation on safe and regular migration and related issues is improved.
  • National and cross-border cooperation on anti-trafficking and smuggling: The capacity of border authorities is strengthened in view of facilitated safe, orderly, and regular migration and improved cooperation on trafficking and smuggling cases.
  • Prevention and protection: Access to information on safe, orderly and regular migration for migrants or potential migrants, including potential victims of trafficking is improved, protection of victims of trafficking (incl. victims of forced labour and children) and vulnerable migrants is improved, and access to sustainable solutions for victims of trafficking and vulnerable migrants is facilitated within the region.

Steering and implementation

As mandated by the Operational Committee of the European Trust Fund, strategic steering is assured by a steering committee, chaired by the European Commission with representatives of the United Kingdom (UK) and European member states directly involved in the steering of the Khartoum Process: France, Germany, Italy and the Kingdom of the Netherlands.