The East and Horn of Africa region remains a major global hotspot of mixed migration, including forced and irregular migration within and across borders. These flows are mixed in as much as they include refugees, asylum seekers, displaced and stranded persons, unaccompanied and separated children, migrant workers and trafficked persons and smuggled migrants. To assist and protect migrants in vulnerable situations, IOM works with states, civil society and development partners.
IOM in the East and Horn of Africa provides protection and assistance to migrants in vulnerable situations, including trafficked persons, smuggled migrants with protection needs, rejected asylum seekers, migrants in irregular situations, stranded migrants, unaccompanied and separated migrant children, and migrants subjected to violence, exploitation or abuse.
In the region IOM contributes to protecting and assisting migrants in need through four key areas:
- Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration (AVRR)
AVRR is an indispensable part of a comprehensive approach to migration management aimed at the orderly and humane return and sustainable reintegration of migrants who are unable or unwilling to remain in host or transit countries, and wish to return voluntarily to their countries of origin, including migrants in vulnerable situations. Under certain conditions, IOM can provide post-arrival and reintegration assistance to migrants returning under the auspices of other stakeholders than IOM, or returning with their own means.
IOM is promoting an “Integrated Approach to Reintegration” in the East and Horn of Africa. To this end, IOM in partnership with governments and other stakeholders is working to enhance the management of the migration process in the region by developing evidence based return and reintegration procedures; promoting safe, humane, dignified voluntary return processes along main migration routes in a sustainable manner and supporting sustainable economic, social and psycho-social reintegration that benefit migrants and communities.
- Migrants in Vulnerable Situations
Over the past 20 years, IOM has provided protection and assistance to thousands of migrants in vulnerable situations, including migrants who have suffered from violence, exploitation or abuse, including in the East and Horn of Africa.
Based on its unique experience, IOM has developed a ‘determinants of migrant vulnerability’ model, an innovative tool to holistically assess migrants’ vulnerabilities and capabilities. It analyses factors at the individual, household/family, community and structural levels that contribute to vulnerability or, conversely, those that contribute to resilience, mitigate vulnerability, reduce harm and can inform comprehensive and sustainable solutions.
To respond to the needs of migrants in vulnerable situations in the East and Horn of Africa region IOM has supported a network of Migration Response Centres (MRCs). MRCs are situated along key migration routes, where they fill critical gaps by providing direct assistance, including food and temporary shelter, information and service referrals to migrants on the move. Working collaboratively, MRCs bring together key partners to facilitate the identification of migrants in vulnerable situations, and ensure that they receive appropriate, immediate and longer-term support.
As of August 2018 five MRCs are currently operational in the Horn of Africa: Hargeisa and Bosasso since 2009, Djibouti since 2011 and Semera and Metema since 2014. IOM is working closely with local authorities to open two further MRCs. The services provided by each MRC vary based on location and needs.
- Countering Trafficking in Persons
IOM works in partnership with governments, the United Nations, international and non-governmental organizations, the private sector and development partners on all aspects of counter-trafficking responses, including prevention, protection, and prosecution aspects.
Since the mid-1990s, IOM and its partners have provided protection and assistance to nearly 100,000 men, women and children, who were trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or for organ removal.
IOM takes a comprehensive approach to addressing human trafficking. Respect for human rights, the physical, mental and social well-being of the individual and his or her community, and the sustainability of our actions through institutional capacity development and partnerships are at the centre of all of IOM’s counter-trafficking efforts. (we should make a link here to BMM, but also to Heba’s project as key regional interventions).
- Protecting Migrant Children
Migrant children, in particular unaccompanied and separated children, are most vulnerable to violence, abuse, exploitation, and human trafficking. IOM works with a wide range of partners to protect the rights of migrant children, keep them safe from harm, prevent their detention and improve their access to assistance, including through AVRR programmes.
Recognising the vulnerabilities and needs of migrant children IOM and UNICEF launched, in November 2017, the first joint Regional Annual Activity Plan for Eastern and Southern Africa. The Joint Plan provides a platform to continue and expand the joint work of IOM and UNICEF to address the needs of migrant children.
The Joint Activity Plan has three core objectives:
- Increase coordination and collaboration between UNICEF and IOM to jointly respond to the protection needs of child migrants, particularly unaccompanied and separated children (UASC) children.
- Increase collaboration on prevention and responses to the detention of child migrants.
- Improve the evidence base on children on the move in mixed migration flows, and link vulnerable children to protection services.